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Controlling the Viscosity of Concentrated Protein Solutions - Salt Type & Ionic Strength 

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Protein solubility is highly dependent on the salt type and ionic strength in the buffer formulation.  This is due to the impact of the ions on the interaction between protein molecules.  These protein-protein interactions also control the viscosity directly and indirectly through their influence on the spatial arrangement of molecules (i.e. microstructure).  Viscosity data is presented for concentrated Bovine γ-Globulin solutions with various salt types and levels to illustrate this effect.  The results can be interpreted with respect to the position of the salt along the Hofmeister series which ranks the strength of hydration. 


  • Viscosity
  • Protein-Protein Interactions
  • Microstructure
  • Hofmeister Series
  • Bovine Gamma Globulin
  • Ionic Strength
  • Protein Solubility
  • Protein Solutions


1. What is the Hofmeister Series?

Hofmeister series refers to the classification of ions from the order of ability to salt out or salt in proteins. 

2. If you can do low concentrations, can you do high concentration protein measurements?

Yep! Similar to this application note, we have a number of more application notes that focus on various concentrations including higher concentration viscosity solutions. Check them out: 

- High Concentration Protein Solutions

- Optimization of Protein Solutions

About the Viscometer

Learn more about the automated viscometer that compliments Clariti™, VROC® initium.

  • 26 µL of Sample
  • Sample Retreival initium (no bdg)
  • Sample Recovery
  • Measurement temperatures 4 - 70 ºC
  • Fully automated system
  • 40 Vial Rack/96 Well Plate
VROC initium